You may not know this, but IMPLAN is working on other projects besides the beloved economic impact software for the US. In fact, IMPLAN economists have been researching European Union (EU) data behind the scenes. Just as IMPLAN was a pioneer in I-O modeling in the US, we are doing the same in the EU. That’s right, IMPLAN is crossing the pond!
Just like the creation of our longstanding US I-O tables, IMPLAN economists take publicly available data and assemble it into fully disclosed, entirely balanced tables. You can go pull some EU data, but IMPLAN has taken the hard work out of organizing it. No need to worry about imputing missing values or ensuring your entire 28 country, 64 Industry I-O matrix is fully balanced.
The data is NUTS; Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics. There are four levels of NUTS.
- NUTS0: 28 countries
- NUTS1: 98 major socio-economic regions
- NUTS2: 276 basic regions for the application of regional policies
- NUTS3: 1,342 small regions for specific diagnosis
EU Countries 1
There are 64 Industries and Commodities in the dataset. And guess what! It is even ready for MRIO with inter-regional commodity trade flows, inter-regional commuting flows, and of course a balanced Social Accounting Matrix (SAM).
You don’t have to learn any foreign languages to use the data, either. All of the resources are in English. The monetary figures are all reported in Million Euros (€ Million).
The kicker is that the data isn’t available in app.implan.com. Yet. Therefore, in order to use it, you must be familiar with manipulating I-O tables in Excel.
Eurostat is the official statistical office of the EU. It is located in Luxembourg with a mission to “provide high quality statistics for Europe.” 2 Eurostat doesn’t collect data, but instead creates the standards by which EU members are to collect their data. They then compile it for use across the EU and have compilations through 2018 for some countries.
The World Input-Output Database (WIOD) was launched in 2009 with funding from the European Commission. 3 They are aimed at examining global integration and inequality across nations. The most recent released WIOD data in 2016 covers 43 countries' data from 2000 to 2014. They have 64 industries and corresponding commodities in the supply and use tables, and 56 industries in the social economic accounts.
DIFFERENCES FROM US DATA:
There are a few differences between the IMPLAN US data you are familiar with and the new EU data other than the fact that it isn’t in app.implan.com so far. The US data uses a gravity model, while the EU data uses a radiation model. This is due to limitations with the EU dataset that don’t have enough raw data details for a full gravity model to be constructed.
Employment figures are a little different, too. While the US data counts jobs, the EU data counts people. So if a person has multiple jobs, they will only be classified under their primary one. They will not show up as an employee in their second (or third or fourth) jobs.
In terms of differences in the SAM structure, The EU data also does not have sufficient granularity to break out household income classes. Therefore, you will only find one household income group. The EU data does distinguish households from nonprofit institutions serving households (NPISH), while the US data distributes these over household groups. Also, taxes are reported as gross values, with subsidies reported separately; US data reports net taxes less subsidies.
The EU dataset is reported in Basic Prices. Basic Prices are the amount realized by the producer after taxes and subsidies. The U.S. data is reported in Producer Prices, which are the amount realized by the producer before taxes and subsidies. 4 In the EU data, Taxes less Subsidies on Products are included in the TOPI for the U.S. data, but not for the EU data.
In detail, this means the intermediate use and final demand values are net of Margins and net of Taxes less Subsidies on Products. In the U.S. using the Producers’ Prices system, those values are only net of Margins. While the Employee Compensation, Proprietor Income, Other Property Income, and Taxes on Production and Imports Less Subsidies (TOPI) are included in the U.S. Value Added at Producers’ Prices, the difference from EU Value Added at Basic Prices lies in TOPI. TOPI in the U.S. includes two pieces: Other taxes less Subsidies on Production and Taxes less Subsidies on Products. Each industry’s value of Other Taxes less Subsidies on Products is equal between the two price systems. The difference is in the remaining portion, which is known as Taxes less Subsidies on Products. While the sum total of this part of TOPI is the same in either price system, each industry’s value is different. Technically, in a Basic Prices framework, Taxes less Subsidies on Products are not part of Value Added. IMPLAN has estimated TOPI values for converting Basic Prices Value Added / Industry Output to Producers’ Prices Value Added / Industry Output. IMPLAN has also estimated Taxes less Subsidies on Products and Margins, which make the data available to convert from Basic Prices to Purchasers’ Prices as well.
Finally, in terms of support, users will have unlimited access to IMPLAN Community Forum at support.implan.com for any data sources and methodology questions you may have that are not addressed by the provided support document. IMPLAN economists will gladly respond to all data sources and methodology questions on IMPLAN’s Community forum within 5 business days at no additional charge. The sample data is provided for the user to fully understand the data they are receiving. IMPLAN does not support data-application or related questions via email, phone, project consultation, or community forum.
Access to the IMPLAN EU data is protected with a custom license agreement. The license agreement will be presented when you are ready to purchase data. Sorry, the lawyers make us do it.
GRAB YOUR PASSPORT:
To learn more about our new European Union data or to see a sample dataset, please contact IMPLAN at 800-507-9426 or email@example.com.
Written November 19, 2019